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      1. 非物质文化遗产法:十年磨一剑

         

        观 点

        ● 与其他法律不同的是,采取了“先地方、后中央”的立法思路

        ● 非物质文化遗产法是一部行政法,主要规范行政部门的行为

        “非遗保护的立法工作,最早可以追溯到上世纪90年代。”全国人大教科文卫委员会文化室主任朱兵说。限于我国立法程序和民族民间传统文化内容的广泛性,加之当时人们对民族民间传统文化保护的认识不足,第九届全国人大教科文卫委员会作出了巨大努力,一方面推动云南省率先出台地方性法规,一方面在国家层面展开立法调研。

        2000年11月,由全国人大教科文卫委员会、原文化部和国家文物局组织的“全国民族民间文化保护立法工作座谈会”在云南召开,拉开了地方立法工作的大幕。之后,云南、贵州、福建、广西、宁夏等省区分别出台了民族民间文化保护条例。在此基础上,2002年8月,原文化部向全国人大教科文卫委员会报送了《中华人民共和国民族民间传统文化保护法(建议稿)》。“当时还未定为‘非物质文化遗产’,‘非物质文化遗产’这一后来统一的名称来自于2003年联合国教科文组织通过的《保护非物质文化遗产公约》。”一位曾参与非物质文化遗产法出台过程的专家说。

        在此之后,第十届全国人大教科文卫委员会形成了《中华人民共和国民族民间传统文化保护法(草案)》,并将该草案名称调整为非物质文化遗产保护法。2009年,去掉“保护”二字的非物质文化遗产法得以确定。2011年2月25日,第十一届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十九次会议审议通过非物质文化遗产法。

        由于非物质文化遗产法包含的一些问题涉及其他法律法规,因此在法律界定时,也曾经做出衔接性规定。比如其中知识产权的问题。非物质文化遗产法是一部行政法,主要规范行政部门的行为,而知识产权属于民事范畴,不是这部法律所能完全涵盖的。同时,非物质文化遗产保护涉及的知识产权问题非常复杂,特别是许多非物质文化遗产的原创权属关系不是很明确,这些问题相当复杂,学术界对此也有不同看法。

        我国非遗保护历程要比非物质文化遗产法的出台要早得多。“从2001年昆曲入选联合国教科文组织的人类口头和非物质遗产代表作名录(现为人类非物质文化遗产代表作名录)开始,我国逐渐建立了四级非遗名录体系,推出四批国家级非遗名录。非物质文化遗产法出台后,名录前加上了‘代表性’,体现出人们对《保护非物质文化遗产公约》的认识得到提升。”原文化部非物质文化遗产司副司长王晨阳说。十年立法路漫漫,非物质文化遗产法的出台丰富了我国法律体系,在文化立法工作中具有里程碑意义。

        (记者 杜洁芳)

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