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      1. 公共图书馆法:党的十九大之后第一部文化法律

         

        观 点

        ● 历经近20年出台

        ● 是一部推进公共图书馆事业发展的专门法

        ● 通篇贯穿着满足人民群众基本文化需求这一主线

        作为党的十九大之后出台的首部文化类法律,公共图书馆法于2018年1月1日起正式施行。与公共文化服务保障法的快速推进不同,公共图书馆法的出台几经搁浅,历经近20年。

        提到文化领域立法,最早受到关注的是图书馆。上世纪初期,西方思潮进入中国后,知识分子就呼吁推动图书馆立法。改革开放后,图书馆立法从学术研究的角度也是最受关注的,一批研究图书馆法的文章在学术期刊上发表。在这些立法研究成果的基础上,2001年4月,原文化部在天津召开图书馆法专家座谈会,对我国图书馆法的立法问题进行研究讨论,标志着图书馆法立法工作正式启动。国家公共文化服务体系建设专家委员会主任、北京大学教授李国新对座谈会记忆犹新,“那次会议上,我作为高校的专家代表参与其中,会后不同方面各自起草了草案,然后进行汇总、讨论。”

        2003年,草案提交至国务院法制办,但是由于业界对高校图书馆、科研院所图书馆、公共图书馆的认识还存在分歧,立法一度被搁置。此后,在国家的立法和事业发展规划中,研究和制定图书馆法的任务依然在继续,但依旧没有提上日程。

        直至2008年,十一届全国人大常委会立法规划公布,图书馆法被列入“第二类项目”(即研究起草、条件成熟时安排审议的法律草案)。2008年11月,原文化部召开公共图书馆立法工作会议,标志着我国图书馆立法工作在2004年中断后经过为时不短的酝酿准备再次进入启动阶段。

        “由于之前的争议,大家意识到,一些分歧通过一部图书馆法很难统一。因此,那次讨论的焦点集中在立‘大法’还是立‘小法’上。”李国新说,最后大家达成共识,决定先立“小法”即公共图书馆法。“不管从哪个方面看,公共图书馆是最需要受到法律保护的。”在此之后,公共图书馆法的立法工作进入了快速推动期。2009年1月,中国图书馆学会新年峰会在北京召开,专题讨论、部署公共图书馆法立法支撑研究事宜。半年时间,参与立法支撑研究的学者达70多人,汇总的初步成果达150万字。直至2017年,历时近20年的公共图书馆法审议通过。

        公共图书馆法围绕公共图书馆在构建现代公共文化服务体系中的职能定位和发展要求,结合自身特点与发展规律,在建设、管理、服务和保障等方面建立起相应的法律制度框架,是一部推进公共图书馆事业发展的专门法。公共图书馆法通篇贯穿着满足人民群众基本文化需求这条主线,坚持均衡发展的原则,将推动、引导、服务全民阅读作为重要任务,用法治思维、法治手段来推动公共图书馆实现和保障人民群众基本文化权益,提升人民群众的文化获得感。它确立了由政府主导、社会参与的公共图书馆建设的基本格局,有力提升了公共图书馆服务效能。

        (记者 杜洁芳)

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