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      1. 文物修复还需用敬畏之心做专业之事

         

        中国文化传媒网讯(记者 王娅玲)近日,一张四川安岳石窟建于宋代的佛教造像遭到毁灭式修复的图片,在微博上引起轩然大波:修复前的造像既有唐代的粗犷古朴,又兼具宋代的写实,衣服褶皱自然灵动;而修复后的造像,浑身被色彩鲜艳的油漆覆盖,佛像五官也被重新彩绘,古意荡然无存。

        正当人们惋惜痛心之时,陆续有广安金凤山摩崖造像、乐至马锣睏佛寺摩崖造像、资中罗汉洞造像等四川省内造像被彩绘重塑后的照片集中被发出。涉事造像基本于2006年至2013年间被认定为省级文物保护单位或全国重点文物保护单位,而“修复”行为多发生于 20世纪80年代末至90年代初,由当地群众自发捐资“妆彩重塑”。

         

        马锣睏佛寺摩崖造像修复前后对比

         

        四川安岳石窟宋代佛教造像修复前后对比

        不只是重塑佛身的民间行为引来诟病,近年来,一些官方主导的修复行为,也没有得到大众的完全认可。山西大同省级文保单位明代得胜堡被用仿古砖包裹,变成崭新的仿古建筑;河北易县镇灵塔原本为砖石结构,经当地文物部门委托的施工队修缮后被涂抹一层白灰成为一座“白塔”,还加修了塔顶;辽宁小河口长城修缮时被指违背了《长城保护条例》中的“不改变原状的原则”。多个官方的修复项目,也没逃脱“不专业”的指责。

        我国文保专业人员多集中在省市文物部门、文保事业单位和博物馆,他们承担了大量国保、省保文物的保护工作。至县级,基层一线专业人员比例很低。而大量的一般不可移动文物责任在县,但多数保护经费不能进入县级预算。因此,民间与官方两种力量共同参与文物修复和保护,很有必要。诚然,不可移动文物常年经受风雨侵蚀,其年久失修的现状我们不能视若无睹,但由于缺乏文物保护意识,群众“好心办坏事”的事情屡屡发生,给历史文物造成了不可逆的伤害。

        我国需要保护的文物很多,除省、市级文物保护单位外,还有大量的县级及一般文物保护对象由于保护力量不足而顾及不上。据统计,我国第三次文物普查登录的不可移动文物76.7万多处,而文物博物馆系统的行政、事业机构的数量与繁重任务相比很不适应,大部分县甚至没有文管所。因此,群众集资修缮文物既是对文物部门维修保护文物的补充,也是动员社会全员参与文物保护的有效途径。

        但是,老百姓没有专业背景,对于应该遵循怎样的修复原则和理念并无概念。他们被信仰的力量驱动,却缺乏文物保护的正确意识,在他们眼里,佛造像并不是文物,而是保佑他们的神灵,他们只是出于“好心”去进行文物修复。问题在于,这样的“好心”需要用“专业”去引导。

        此外,必须要明确的是,历史遗迹的修复说到底要依靠文物行政部门,要充分依靠有科学保护手段、科学保护意识的“正规军”。

        文物代表过去的时代,有当时的技术、审美、社会风俗等方面的印记。文物身上的斑驳肌理,沧桑痕迹,也都记录着时光流转、时代变迁,以无声的方式传递着丰富的政治、经济、社会、文化等信息。正因如此,梁思成先生曾经提出,文物要“修旧如旧”。这里的“如旧”,并不是意味着因循守旧不能容忍丝毫的创新发展,而是要尽可能以最小的干预保护文物本体结构,保持文物原始风貌,保住文物周边环境。《中华人民共和国文物保护法》也明确规定,对不可移动文物进行修缮、保养、迁移,必须遵守不改变文物原状的原则。各级文物保护单位在进行修复时,必须牢牢把握住这些理念和底线,进行专业和规范操作,用专业技艺推动文物修复。

        随着科技发展,文物修复技术和观念都在逐步提高,用更先进的修复技术解决文物修复中的难题已经成为可能,更多古老技艺中的缺陷也在先进技术的出现后而得到弥补,更加专业的修复技艺将更好助力文物修复。

        不管是对官方行为,还是对民间行为而言,存“敬畏”之心,行“专业”之事,都是文物修复和保护的题中之意。

        一方面,各级文物行政部门要充分发挥主管职能,正确引导鼓励群众的自发修复,使之步入正轨;相关部门的宣传行动也要能抢占先机,注重对人民日常文物保护意识的教育,莫等伤害发生再追悔莫及。另外一方面,采用更先进的技术手段弥补古老技艺中的缺陷和不完美是现代人的义务和幸运。不断创新发展文物保护理念、工作机制、技术手段也是各级文物行政部门、业界专家等“正规军”的职责所在。

        最新消息称,国家文物局已经下发通知,要求四川省文物局立即开展全面拉网式调查,加强有效管理,开展宣传教育,四川省文物局也有针对性地布置了工作重点。希望这批造像在百姓的善意和文物行政部门的双重努力下,能够继续屹立千年。

        文物是文化的讲述者,是历史的见证人,是民族的记忆库。文物修复是一项复杂而专业的严肃计划,如果没有权威的指导,没有尊重历史的方案,没有有关部门的监管,我们可以预言,修复式破坏可能还会出现。只有文物行政部门切实履行职责,民间力量得到正确引导,用更专业的行动做最专业的文物修复,文物保护工作的明天才会更好。

        文章来源:北京青年报 责任编辑:王娅玲

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